Powering the Microcontroller
The maximum voltage for the pic microcontroller is 5.5V, minimum is 2V. So you need a 5.5V regulated power supply, I use 5V.
You can see the necessary parts in the circuit diagram. You need a 230V/5V transformer, (if your country supplies 110V it should be 110V/5V transformer). These comes with various output currents, but not more than 1 ampear is needed for this purpose.
Testing stages of any project should be done with AC power because using batteries is a waste.
The 5V transformer reduces 230V to 5 volts. The rectifier bridge rectifies the AC signal to a DC signal. 2200uF electrolytic cap is connected in parallel to smooth your DC current. Then a 7805 power regulator IC is connected to make sure not even single milivolt than 5V goes through it (not serious ok, just joking :P, nothings ever accurate but it will keep the output as near as possible to 5V). And a 0.1uF cap is connected in parallel as seen in the circuit. This is again to remove some noise.
Connect the positive rail to VDD of the microcontroller and the negative rail to VSS, and at this stage, just connect the MCLR to the positive rail. MCLR is used reset the chip. More info about reset will be on a later article.
For some circuits you’ll need additional current for 5V components, in that case refer your 7805 regulator datasheet for the current booster circuit.
The 230V input wires of the transformer can be fixed to a plug.
The microcontroller needs some more stuff which will be explained in later articles in order to be fully operational. But if you want a 5V clean DC supply u can just disconnect the microcontroller and use that positive and negative rails as your 5V source. Before plugging it to the AC socket, insulate well so that you won’t die following my tute :P.